How to Create Dockerized Application

The following are the basic steps for developing Keboola Docker Images. There is no need to know everything about the Docker stack since this is a very limited set of Docker features. The official tutorial is not being replaced here. Before you start, make sure you have Docker installed.

The code discussed below is available in our sample repository.

Creating Your Own Image

To create your own image, create a Dockerfile. A Dockerfile is a set of shell instructions leading to a configured OS environment. You can think of it as a bash shell script with some specifics. Each Dockerfile should be placed in its own folder because the folder becomes a Build Context of the Docker image. The build context contains files which can be injected into the image. There is no other way to inject arbitrary files into the image other than through the build context or via downloading them from the Internet.

Useful Dockerfile instructions:

  • FROM: State the base image to start with.
  • RUN: Execute an arbitrary shell command.
  • ENTRYPOINT: Set the command which will be executed when the image is run; this is the command that will actually run inside a container. When the command finishes, the container finishes too.
  • ENV: Set an environment variable, use this instead of export.
  • WORKDIR: Set the current working folder.
  • COPY: Copy files from the build context into the image.

Note that in Dockerfile, each instruction is executed in its own shell. Therefore, the ENV and WORKDIR instructions MUST be used to set environment variables and the current folder.

Sample Image

Create an empty folder. Then create a Dockerfile with the following contents inside the folder.

FROM alpine

ENTRYPOINT ping -c 2

The FROM instruction means you start with the Alpine Linux image. The second instruction means that when you run the image, it will ping twice and exit. When you run

docker build .

you should see an output like this:

Sending build context to Docker daemon  2.048kB
Step 1/2 : FROM alpine
---> 37eec16f1872
Step 2/2 : ENTRYPOINT ping -c 2
---> Running in 8339a4e2e1c2
---> ad16195c696d
Removing intermediate container 8339a4e2e1c2
Successfully built ad16195c696d

The ad16195c696d is a volatile image hash which is used to refer to the image and can be abbreviated to first three characters (ad1 in this case). Additionally, you can name the image by passing the --tag option, e.g.,

docker build --tag=my-image .

After the image has been built, run it using docker run ad1 or

docker run my-image .

You should see an output like this:

docker run my-image .
PING ( 56 data bytes
64 bytes from seq=0 ttl=37 time=137.057 ms
64 bytes from seq=1 ttl=37 time=145.279 ms

--- ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 137.057/141.168/145.279 ms

Inspecting Image

When building your own image, the ability to run arbitrary commands in the image is very useful. Override the entrypoint using the --entrypoint option (which means that your application will not execute, and you will have to run it manually). The -i and -t options open interactive terminal:

docker run -i -t --entrypoint=/bin/sh my-image

The option --entrypoint overrides the ENTRYPOINT specified in the Dockerfile. This ensures that a sh shell is run instead of your application. You then have to run the ping command, previously defined in the entrypoint, manually.

It is also possible to inspect a running container. Assume you have the following Dockerfile:

FROM alpine


When you build it using:

docker build --tag=my-image .

Then run the image (create a new container and run the image entrypoint in it):

docker run my-image

Open a new command line window and run:

docker ps

This will show you a list of running containers — something like:

CONTAINER ID  IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS         NAMES
f7def769a470  my-image  "/bin/sh -c 'ping ..."   16 seconds ago   Up 13 seconds  sharp_ptolemy

The important part is the container ID. You can then run an arbitrary command in the running container with the following command:

docker exec *container_id* *command*

For example:

docker exec -i -t f7d /bin/sh

will execute interactive terminal with the shell in the container daf (container ID can be shortened to first 3 letters). Verify that ping is still running by:

ps -A

which will give you something like:

1    root   0:00   /bin/sh -c ping .
5    root   0:00   ping
11   root   0:00   /bin/sh
15   root   0:00   /bin/sh
19   root   0:00   ps -A

Installing Things

Chances are that your application requires something special. You can install whatever you need using standard commands. You can create Dockerfile:

FROM debian

RUN apt-get update
RUN apt-get install -y php-cli
ENTRYPOINT php -r "echo 'Hello world from PHP';"

The RUN commands will install the specified php-cli package. Build the image with:

docker build --tag=my-image .

and then run the image (and create a new container):

docker run my-image

You should see the following output:

Hello world from PHP

Loading Files into Image

When you need to add files into your image, use the build context (which is simply the folder in which the Dockerfile is and in which you are building the image). Create a test.php file in the same folder as the Dockerfile with the following contents:


echo "Hello world from PHP file";

Then change the Dockerfile to:

FROM debian

RUN apt-get update
RUN apt-get install -y php-cli
COPY . /code/

ENTRYPOINT php /code/test.php

The COPY command copies the entire contents of the folder with Dockerfile into the /code/ folder inside the image. The ENTRYPOINT command then simply executes the file when the image is run. When you docker build and docker run the image, you will receive:

Hello world from PHP file

Dockerfile Gotchas

  • Make absolutely sure that the Dockerfile script requires no interaction.
  • Each Dockerfile instruction runs in its own shell, and there is no state maintained between them. This means that, for instance, having RUN export foo=bar makes no sense. Use ENV foo=bar instruction to create environment variables.
  • When you look at the existing Dockerfiles, you will realize that commands are squashed together to a single instruction. This is because each instruction creates a layer and there is a limited number of layers (layers are counted for the base images too). However, this approach makes debugging more complicated. So, you better start with having
RUN instruction1
RUN instruction2

and only once you are sure the image builds correctly and you are happy with the result, change this to:

RUN instruction1 \

    && instruction2
  • When you refer to files on the Internet, make sure they are available publicly, so that the image can be rebuilt by a Docker registry.
  • Be careful about storing private things in the image (like credentials or keys); they will remain in the image unless you delete them.
  • Be sure to delete temporary files, as they bloat the image. That’s why we add rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* everywhere.
  • Consult the Dockerfile Best Practices for more detailed information.

Now that you are able to create dockerized applications, get yourself familiar with the Docker registry.